Black Markets on the Deep Web

Black Markets on the Deep Web

The Market That Will Sell You A $20,000 Bank Loan For $30

Here are a few things you can buy on the Deep Web you may not
have heard about.
Rare Opsec Manuals for Survivalists
Rare Special Ops Guides
3D Printed Guns and Bullets
Drugs for Cancer
Japanese Manga
Books on How to Overthrow Governments
Top Darknet Markets
There are two types of Blackmarket Drug emporiums on the Deep
Web. Those you trust and those you don’t. Below is a list of some of the
more popular black market outlets. One or two may be gone already by
the time this article is published. In five years all of them may be gone.
The point here isn’t to steer you into any one of these in particular or
even that I want you to buy illegal drugs (I don’t), but to remind you that
none of these sites will last forever just as Google and Microsoft won’t
last forever.
Something will come along to replace the behemoths just as surely
the same as AltaVista, Infoseek, Napster, and Divx were replaced. It can
happen quickly. My grandfather’s motto: Never gamble or invest more
than you can afford to lose.
Agora Marketplace

  1. Never share your card details.
  2. Don’t keep your personal data on your device from which you are surfing the dark web.
  3. Put tape on camera.
  4. Turn off your location.
  5. Don’t use your real name.
  6. Don’t trust any person on the dark web in a random chatbox.
  7. Never open any link given on the dark web.
  8. Surf only for education purposes only.
  9. Never buy anything.
  10. Don’t use your address, personal email, phone number.
  11. Don’t use the same passwords.
  12. Log out from everywhere before using the dark web.
  13. Surf dark web only on the empty computer ( Documents, pictures, videos free hard drive, social media logged-out).

How To Set Up SSH Keys

Introduction

What's on your key ring? When is it too many? | Wynns Locksmiths Blog

 

The Secure Shell Protocol (or SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol that allows users to securely access a remote computer over an unsecured network.

Though SSH supports password-based authentication, it is generally recommended that you use SSH keys instead. SSH keys are a more secure method of logging into an SSH server, because they are not vulnerable to common brute-force password hacking attacks.

Generating an SSH key pair creates two long strings of characters: a public and a private key. You can place the public key on any server, and then connect to the server using an SSH client that has access to the private key.

When the public and private keys match up, the SSH server grants access without the need for a password. You can increase the security of your key pair even more by protecting the private key with an optional (but highly encouraged) passphrase.

Step 1 — Creating the Key Pair

The first step is to create a key pair on the client machine. This will likely be your local computer. Type the following command into your local command line:

  • ssh-keygen -t ed25519
  • Copy
Output
Generating public/private ed25519 key pair.

You will see a confirmation that the key generation process has begun, and you will be prompted for some information, which we will discuss in the next step.

Capacity Planning for MySQL and MariaDB – Dimensioning Storage Size

Server manufacturers and cloud providers offer different kinds of storage solutions to cater to your database needs. When buying a new server or choosing a cloud instance to run our database, we often ask ourselves – how much disk space should we allocate? As we will find out, the answer is not trivial as there are a number of aspects to consider. Disk space is something that has to be thought of upfront because shrinking and expanding disk space can be a risky operation for a disk-based database.

In this blog post, we are going to look into how to initially size your storage space and then plan for capacity to support the growth of your MySQL or MariaDB database.

How MySQL Utilizes Disk Space

MySQL stores data in files on the hard disk under a specific directory that has the system variable “datadir”. The contents of the datadir will depend on the MySQL server version, and the loaded configuration parameters and server variables (e.g., general_log, slow_query_log, binary log).

The actual storage and retrieval information is dependent on the storage engines. For the MyISAM engine, a table’s indexes are stored in the .MYI file, in the data directory, along with the .MYD and .frm files for the table. For InnoDB engine, the indexes are stored in the tablespace, along with the table. If innodb_file_per_table option is set, the indexes will be in the table’s .ibd file along with the .frm file. For the memory engine, the data are stored in the memory (heap) while the structure is stored in the .frm file on disk. In the upcoming MySQL 8.0, the metadata files (.frm, .par, dp.opt) are removed with the introduction of the new data dictionary schema.

It’s important to note that if you are using InnoDB shared tablespace for storing table data (innodb_file_per_table=OFF), your MySQL physical data size is expected to grow continuously even after you truncate or delete huge rows of data. The only way to reclaim the free space in this configuration is to export, delete the current databases and re-import them back via mysqldump. Thus, it’s important to set innodb_file_per_table=ON if you are concerned about the disk space, so when truncating a table, the space can be reclaimed. Also, with this configuration, a huge DELETE operation won’t free up the disk space unless OPTIMIZE TABLE is executed afterward.

MySQL stores each database in its own directory under the “datadir” path. In addition, log files and other related MySQL files like socket and PID files, by default, will be created under datadir as well. For performance and reliability reason, it is recommended to store MySQL log files on a separate disk or partition – especially the MySQL error log and binary logs.

Database Size Estimation

The basic way of estimating size is to find the growth ratio between two different points in time, and then multiply that with the current database size. Measuring your peak-hours database traffic for this purpose is not the best practice, and does not represent your database usage as a whole. Think about a batch operation or a stored procedure that runs at midnight, or once a week. Your database could potentially grow significantly in the morning, before possibly being shrunk by a housekeeping operation at midnight.

One possible way is to use our backups as the base element for this measurement. Physical backup like Percona Xtrabackup, MariaDB Backup and filesystem snapshot would produce a more accurate representation of your database size as compared to logical backup, since it contains the binary copy of the database and indexes. Logical backup like mysqldump only stores SQL statements that can be executed to reproduce the original database object definitions and table data. Nevertheless, you can still come out with a good growth ratio by comparing mysqldump backups.

We can use the following formula to estimate the database size:

Where,

  • Bn – Current week full backup size,
  • Bn-1 – Previous week full backup size,
  • Dbdata – Total database data size,
  • Dbindex – Total database index size,
  • 52 – Number of weeks in a year,
  • Y – Year.

The total database size (data and indexes) in MB can be calculated by using the following statements:

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mysql> SELECT ROUND(SUM(data_length + index_length) / 1024 / 1024, 2) "DB Size in MB" FROM information_schema.tables;
+---------------+
| DB Size in MB |
+---------------+
|       2013.41 |
+---------------+

The above equation can be modified if you would like to use the monthly backups instead. Change the constant value of 52 to 12 (12 months in a year) and you are good to go.

Also, don’t forget to account for innodb_log_file_size x 2, innodb_data_file_path and for Galera Cluster, add gcache.size value.

Binary Logs Size Estimation

Binary logs are generated by the MySQL master for replication and point-in-time recovery purposes. It is a set of log files that contain information about data modifications made on the MySQL server. The size of the binary logs depends on the number of write operations and the binary log format – STATEMENT, ROW or MIXED. Statement-based binary log are usually much smaller as compared to row-based binary log, because it only consists of the write statements while the row-based consists of modified rows information.

The best way to estimate the maximum disk usage of binary logs is to measure the binary log size for a day and multiply it with the expire_logs_days value (default is 0 – no automatic removal). It’s important to set expire_logs_days so you can estimate the size correctly. By default, each binary log is capped around 1GB before MySQL rotates the binary log file. We can use a MySQL event to simply flush the binary log for the purpose of this estimation.

Firstly, make sure event_scheduler variable is enabled:

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mysql> SET GLOBAL event_scheduler = ON;

Then, as a privileged user (with EVENT and RELOAD privileges), create the following event:

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mysql> USE mysql;
mysql> CREATE EVENT flush_binlog
ON SCHEDULE EVERY 1 HOUR STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ENDS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 2 HOUR
COMMENT 'Flush binlogs per hour for the next 2 hours'
DO FLUSH BINARY LOGS;

For a write-intensive workload, you probably need to shorten down the interval to 30 minutes or 10 minutes before the binary log reaches 1GB maximum size, then round the output up to an hour. Then verify the status of the event by using the following statement and look at the LAST_EXECUTED column:

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mysql> SELECT * FROM information_schema.events WHERE event_name='flush_binlog'\G
       ...
       LAST_EXECUTED: 2018-04-05 13:44:25
       ...

Then, take a look at the binary logs we have now:

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mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
+---------------+------------+
| Log_name      | File_size  |
+---------------+------------+
| binlog.000001 |        146 |
| binlog.000002 | 1073742058 |
| binlog.000003 | 1073742302 |
| binlog.000004 | 1070551371 |
| binlog.000005 | 1070254293 |
| binlog.000006 |  562350055 | <- hour #1
| binlog.000007 |  561754360 | <- hour #2
| binlog.000008 |  434015678 |
+---------------+------------+

We can then calculate the average of our binary logs growth which is around ~562 MB per hour during peak hours. Multiply this value with 24 hours and the expire_logs_days value:

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mysql> SELECT (562 * 24 * @@expire_logs_days);
+---------------------------------+
| (562 * 24 * @@expire_logs_days) |
+---------------------------------+
|                           94416 |
+---------------------------------+

We will get 94416 MB which is around ~95 GB of disk space for our binary logs. Slave’s relay logs are basically the same as the master’s binary logs, except that they are stored on the slave side. Therefore, this calculation also applies to the slave relay logs.

Spindle Disk or Solid State?

There are two types of I/O operations on MySQL files:

  • Sequential I/O-oriented files:
    • InnoDB system tablespace (ibdata)
    • MySQL log files:
      • Binary logs (binlog.xxxx)
      • REDO logs (ib_logfile*)
      • General logs
      • Slow query logs
      • Error log
  • Random I/O-oriented files:
    • InnoDB file-per-table data file (*.ibd) with innodb_file_per_table=ON (default).

Consider placing random I/O-oriented files in a high throughput disk subsystem for best performance. This could be flash drive – either SSDs or NVRAM card, or high RPM spindle disks like SAS 15K or 10K, with hardware RAID controller and battery-backed unit. For sequential I/O-oriented files, storing on HDD with battery-backed write-cache should be good enough for MySQL. Take note that performance degradation is likely if the battery is dead.

We will cover this area (estimating disk throughput and file allocation) in a separate post.

Capacity Planning and Dimensioning

Capacity planning can help us build a production database server with enough resources to survive daily operations. We must also provision for unexpected needs, account for future storage and disk throughput needs. Thus, capacity planning is important to ensure the database has enough room to breath until the next hardware refresh cycle.

It’s best to illustrate this with an example. Considering the following scenario:

  • Next hardware cycle: 3 years
  • Current database size: 2013 MB
  • Current full backup size (week N): 1177 MB
  • Previous full backup size (week N-1): 936 MB
  • Delta size: 241MB per week
  • Delta ratio: 25.7% increment per week
  • Total weeks in 3 years: 156 weeks
  • Total database size estimation: ((1177 – 936) x 2013 x 156)/936 = 80856 MB ~ 81 GB after 3 years

If you are using binary logs, sum it up from the value we got in the previous section:

  • 81 + 95 = 176 GB of storage for database and binary logs.

Add at least 100% more room for operational and maintenance tasks (local backup, data staging, error log, operating system files, etc):

  • 176 + 176 = 352 GB of total disk space.

Based on this estimation, we can conclude that we would need at least 352 GB of disk space for our database for 3 years. You can use this value to justify your new hardware purchase. For example, if you want to buy a new dedicated server, you could opt for 6 x 128 SSD RAID 10 with battery-backed RAID controller which will give you around 384 GB of total disk space. Or, if you prefer cloud, you could get 100GB of block storage with provisioned IOPS for our 81GB database usage and use the standard persistent block storage for our 95GB binary logs and other operational usage.

Happy dimensioning!

Microsoft makes a grand scale entry with a feature-rich Windows 11

Windows 11

Microsoft officially made a massive announcement about Windows 11 at a Microsoft event. Often most grand tech releases have been leaked before their official announcement, similarly, it is the same situation for Windows 11 as well.

In the past, Microsoft had made claims that Windows 10 is going to be the ultimate operating system for many years to come. With that been said, Microsoft 10 has been in the game for 6 years and the new update is packed with many amazing features which is part of the reason Microsoft decided to go ahead with Windows 11.

This new OS is big news to many Microsoft-based computers. And, there is a piece of even bigger news for all of you which is that all existing users will be able to get a free update once when it is launched.

Windows 11 features
Source: PCWELT

Windows 11 release date

Microsoft is trying to you one of the biggest gifts for the holiday season as they plan to release Windows 11 somewhere around late November and Christmas.

Windows 11 minimum requirement

This is something that all you readers must have been itching to know. Have a glance at what the minimum requirements are.

Processor1 GHz or faster with 2 or more cores on a compatible 64-bit processor or system on a Chip (SoC)
Memory4 GB Ram
Storage64 GB or larger storage device
System FirmwareUEFI, Secure Boot capable
TPMTrusted Platform Module (TPM) version 2.0
Graphics cardDirectX 12 compatible graphics / WDDM 2.x
Display>9″ with HD Resolution (720p)
Internet connectionMicrosoft account and internet connectivity required for setup for Windows 11 Home
Source: Microsoft

Windows 11 Features to look out for

Windows 11 has many cool features but there are few noticeable features that make Windows 11 shine. These features are, the simplistic UI, a brand new Windows store, Xbox Game Pass, running android apps for the first time, improvement in gaming performance, and enhancements to general performance and multitasking.

Look and feel

The most notable thing about this new UI is that it features a new Start menu and an updated Start button that are centered on the taskbar. It can be said that this new UI is very similar to what Windows 10X had. Windows 10X was a project planned for dual-screen services which Microsoft eventually had to scratch off.

Windows 11 UI
Source: Pocket-lint

Microsoft has not forgotten to include an updated dark and light modes to Windows 11, which are far better than the ones in our current Windows version.

Work-life and tweaks to multitasking

Microsoft always thinks about making your work life easier. To simplify your work life Microsoft has added brand new multitasking features like Snap Layouts to Windows 11. Snap Layouts allows you to arrange multiple windows across the screen side by side, in columns, sections, and more. Also, you can go back to your previously snapped windows from the dock. For example, you can go to your email app and Edge browser windows without having to snap them back to the previous view again.

Snap Layouts
Source: XDA

Usually, Skype is one of the actors in the main cast but this time Microsoft has given more attention to Microsoft Teams. Microsoft teams are now directly integrated into the taskbar allowing you to call your friends, family, and work colleagues. Additionally, Microsoft has very thoughtfully included a universal mute button in the system tray that allows you to mute your microphone across all apps.

When you are a busy person stacked up with a lot of work you then tend to forget what you need to do. As a solution to this Microsoft has included multi-monitor support. What this feature does is that when you reconnect your external monitor Windows 11 remembers the previous positions of the windows that were on that monitor.

Windows store and entry of android apps

The all-new Windows store has been redesigned to look much better than earlier. It has better well-thought content along with better options to manage the shows you bought.

The best thing that happened to the Windows store is that now it can support Android apps. Now, you are not limited to only Windows-based apps instead you have a ton of apps to choose from. The new Windows store includes apps from Adobe Creative Suite and ever-so-famous android apps like TikTok and Instagram.

Windows store is able to host android apps for the first time thanks to the partnership with Amazon and intel. And, Windows 11 will be using Intel Bridge technology to make this amazing feature a reality.

Android apps in Windows store - Windows 11 features
Source: The Verge

General performance

Phew, now you don’t have to worry about Windows updates taking up space. Windows updates are now 40% smaller and efficient as they now happen in the background. What this could also mean is that you can carry out any work without any disturbance whatsoever.

Gaming performance

Gaming has become much more visually pleasing than ever with ‘Auto HDR’. ‘Auto HDR’ uses computer intelligence to max out the visuals of your favorite game.

Xbox Game Pass

Microsoft has been testing a new Xbox app behind the scenes so now thanks to that Windows 11 is integrated with Xbox Game Pass. As a part of the Xbox Game Pass, xCloud is integrated into the Xbox app. This allows you to stream games from the Microsoft cloud.

Xbox Game Pass
Source: Microsoft

The new features are stunning, and when Windows 11 officially gets launched we expect to see more killer features. Let’s keep our fingers crossed that the Corona Pandemic doesn’t get in the way of the launch.

Create Linux RAID1 Mirror Using Mdadm.

 

Firstly you need to install ‘mdadm’ utility on our system, if not installed already

$ yum install mdadm
After installing ‘mdadm’, we will prepare our disks sdc & sdd for RAID configuration with the help of ‘fdisk’

  • Firstly we will prepare /dev/sdc disk for LVM, start by
  • Type ‘n’ for creating a new partition,
  • Next type ‘p’ for creating the primary partition (since this is a new disk, partition number will be 1 )
  • Nest for First cylinder value & last cylinder value, press enter to use default values i.e. full HDD space
  • Type ‘t’ for accessing the partition followed by ‘1’ (partition number)
  • Now, this is the part where we will enter the partition id for creating RAID i.e. ‘fd’. Type ‘fd’ now & press ‘w’ to write changes.
  • The same process is to be followed for /dev/sdc as well. When both disks have been partitioned, we can examine them usingThe same process is to be followed for /dev/sdd as well. When both disks have been partitioned, we can examine them using

    Now that we partitioned both HDDs, we will create RAID array (aka md device) named ‘/dev/md1’ using the following command

    mdadm –create /dev/md1 –level=mirror –raid-devices=2 /dev/sd[c-d]1

    We will now verify our RAID array by running the following command

    $ cat /proc/mdstat/dev/sd[c-d]1
    For complete details regarding the RAID 1 array, we use the following command

    $ mdadm –detail /dev/md1
    RAID array is ready but still can’t be used as we have not assigned it a filesystem & have not mounted it on our system. So we will assign a filesystem first using ‘mkfs’ command

    $ mkfs.ext4 /dev/md1

    & next we will mount it on /data,

    $ mkdir /data
    $ mount /dev/md1 /data

    But this is only a temporary mount & will not survive a reboot. So we will make an entry into /etc/fstab

    $ vi /etc/fstab

    /dev/md1                /data              ext4    defaults         0 0

    Save & exit the file. Our RAID array is now permanently mounted to /data.

    Lastly, we will create backup of the RAID configuration in order to use it further

    $ mdadm -E -s -v >> /etc/mdadm.conf
    $ mdadm –detail –scan –verbose >> /etc/mdadm.conf
    $ cat /etc/mdadm.conf

    Note : I have tested this on AWS  using CentOS it worked well for me

    Thank you,
    Nuwan Vithanage